The Association of Nigerian Geographers (ANG)
FULL LIST OF ANG 59TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE ACCEPTED ABSTRACTS
ABSTRACT OF THE NIGERIAN GEOGRAPHICAL JOURNAL,VOLUME10,NO.2-SEPT.2015
ASSESSMENT OF WATER DEMAND AND SUPPLY SITUATIONS IN RURAL AREAS OF KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA
A.I. Inkani1*, G.O. Krhoda2 and I.A. Nyandega2
1Department of Geography, Umaru Musa Yaradu’a University, Katsina, Nigeria 2Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya *Correspondence (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Water supply and demand situations were studied in rural areas of Katsina State, Nigeria using a questionnaire administered on 400 rural households (HHs) across three rainfall zones of the state (north, central and south). The selected HHs were subjected to personal interviews, focused group discussion and key informants interviews. The results obtained showed that per capita water availability was 26 litres per day which was below the national average of 38 litres given by UNDP (2006) for Nigeria. There were some disparities between HHs water demand and availability in each of the three zones. The demand was clearly highest in the central zone, followed by the south and then the northern zone. The availability was highest in the south, then the central and then the northern zone. The mean HH water availability for the three zones were 276 litres, 170 litres and 150 litre respectively for south, central and northern zone of the state which clearly show decrease with decrease in rainfall amount. That of the demand was highest in the central, and least in the northern zone. Further, the water availability for HHs in the state when compared to the WHO (2003) recommendation indicate a clear case of serious scarcity problem as the state belongs to the class of basic access (water available only to meet demands for drinking and hygiene, with little or none to meet other demands such as livestock watering). It was thus recommended that there should always be a government contingency plan in dealing with water scarcity problem in Katsina State. Keywords: Rural, Water, Demand, Availability,Katsina, Households
CLIMATE CHANGE AND VULNERABILITY OF THE RIVERINE COMMUNITIES IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
AbdulKadir A.1, Abdullahi J2, Christie L. Y4, Mohammed M1, Liman H. M3. and Hassan A. B1.
1Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, PMB 65, Minna, Nigeria 2Department of Geography, Ahmadu Bello University, PMB 1069, Zaria, NIGERIA 3Department of Geography, Ibrahim BadamasiBabangida University Lapai, Nigeria 4Department of Geography, Niger State College of Education, Minna, Nigeria *Correspondence (+234-805-302-0742; email@example.com)
Most of the sub-Sahara African population lives in vulnerable environment, and highly dependent on natural resources such as rain-fed crop production for their livelihood which made the region most vulnerable to climate change impact. This paper examines the vulnerability of riverine communities downstream of Shiroro Dam. Hydrological data (1975- 2012) were analysed and questionnaires were administered during field work to determine the environmental and socio-economic vulnerability of the study area. The crucial information were extracted, coded, ranked and analysed using SPSS 16.0. This was used to determine communities’ vulnerability based on their response about flooding events, susceptibility, risk and capacity. The analysis depicts a noticeable fluctuation in the hydrological data thereby resulting to variation in communities’ exposure to impending natural hazard like flood. The questionnaire analysis reveals varying levels of communities’ physical environment and socio-economic vulnerability. The community vulnerability gives an indication to the fact that interventions should be community-based rather than general and broad based decision that characterized disaster risk management in the country. Keywords: Climate Change, Flood, Socio-economic Risk, Capacity and Rural Livelihood
CAUSES AND SPATIAL SPREAD OF INFANT MORTALITY IN OWERRI MUNICIPALITY, IMO STATE, NIGERIA
Duru, Pat. N, Chibo, Christian N. and Ihediohamma Precious
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Imo State University, Owerri
Infant mortality is an indicator of the level of health in a country. Nigeria still records a very high infant mortality rate compared to other developing countries. This study is on the causes and spatial spread of infant mortality in Owerri Municipality, lmo State, Nigeria. Primary data were generated through the distribution of 200 copies of questionnaire using systematic sampling technique. Oral interview was also conducted to complement data obtained through questionnaire. Infant mortality data (ages 0-5years) from 2009-2012 were also collected from Ministry of Health (MOH) Owerri. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed to investigate the different ages that are mostly affected and to know if infant mortality is evenly spread among the different ages. Chi-square statistical method was used to determine relationship between the state of healthcare facilities and infant mortality. Result showed that children between 0-1 year have the highest mortality rate with 55.16 %, while children between 2-3 years and 4-5 years have 27.94% and 16.9% mortality rates respectively. This implies that infant mortality is not evenly distributed among the different ages. Result of analysis affirms that malaria is the highest killer of infants in the study area with about 44.6 %, followed by diarrhea and pneumonia with 33.3 % and 11.3% respectively. In the light of the above findings, it is recommended that more healthcare facilities be provided especially in rural communities that do not have access to adequate healthcare services. Health education should be intensified especially among illiterate mothers who are ignorant. The government should also fund existing programs and policies that will help to curb infant mortality. A yearly review of the programs and policies should be put in place to curb infant mortality.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REMOTELY SENSED AND FIELD-BASED DATA: A CASE STUDY OF NORTH EASTERN KANO, NIGERIA
Ummi K. Mohammed and A.I. Tanko
Department of Geography, Bayero University, Kano firstname.lastname@example.org
The aim of this paper is to compare the accuracies of data obtained through field based surveys and remote sensing products, carried out by the use of quadrat method along a 90km transect line in northeastern Kano. A total of six sites were taken at 15km interval. Parameters such as tree density, tree girth, tree height and type of species were measured and observed. On the other hand 2012 NDVI image was used to extract the NDVI values coinciding with points at which field measurements were carried out. The ArcGIS 9.3 software was used for part of the analysis, so also the Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis was done at 0.05 level of significance. Both Simple and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis were carried out to identify the relative contributions of the measured parameters (in the field) to the overall changes in the remotely sensed vegetation data. From the result, there were variations in terms of tree density from one place to the next in all sites. In terms of tree species, there were a total of 11 dispersed tree species with shrubs and grasses common to all the quadrats along the transect line. The dominant tree species was the Azadirachtaindica (Neem) with highest occurrence throughout the six sites. Adansoniadigitata (Baobab) the thickest of the species with an average girth of 4.5m while Ficuslutea (Forest fig) stands the tallest with an average height of 10m. From the result of the Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis, the relationship between NDVI and number of species was negative, while that of NDVI with tree girth and tree height was positive. It was deduced from the Simple Linear Regression Analysis that all three parameters were not strong enough to explain variations in NDVI. From the ground truthing result, the nature of the vegetation within the area of study conforms to the Sudan Savanna type of vegetation, with dispersed trees, shrubs and grasses. It is recommended that more researches on vegetation change studies in Kano and Nigeria as a whole to be carried out quantitatively, that involve the use of satellite remote sensing data and field measurements, to compliment the much available qualitative studies. Keywords: Field-based data, quadrat, remote sensing, transect, vegetation
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INDIGENOUS AND SCIENTIFIC SOIL CONSERVATION APPROACHES IN THE FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY OF NIGERIA, IN THE LIGHT OF CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS
Jenkwe, E.D.* and Chup, C.D.
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Abuja, P.M.B 117, Abuja Nigeria. *Correspondence (+234 07031106287; email@example.com)
This paper seeks to determine the effectiveness of both farmers’ knowledge and the contributions of extension workers to soil conservation in the FCT. This is necessitated by the fact that despite the farmer’s continuous involvement in farming activities, and the continuous presence of government – paid extension workers, soil erosion has remained a major hindrance to agricultural productivity, as well as soil and environmental management. This scenario is likely to aggravate, with increasing impact of the present Climate Change in Nigeria, and the FCT in particular. The data for this study was collected via structured Questionnaire administration, an In-depth Interview (IDI) and field observations. The data was analysed using tables, percentages and Chi square to determine the knowledge of farmers and the adoption of soil conservation measures. There was also a further examination of the likely consequences, taking into consideration the increasing impacts of Climate Change in the FCT. The results indicate clearly that there is a significant relationship between farmers’ knowledge and adoption of Soil conservation measures in the study area. However, the result suggest a high extent of non-involvement of farmers’ knowledge of soil conservation measures by experts, The research recommends that, to effectively plan for the adoption of soil conservation measures, it is necessary for the Extension agents to involve local farmers in their decision making processes. There is equally the need for an aggressive awareness campaign on climate change and its social and environmental consequences, to enable farmers incorporate such in their farming practices. Keywords: Farmers’ knowledge; Soil Conservation; Climate Change; Environmental Sustainability.
MORPHOMETRIC AND REGIONAL PLANNING ASPECTS OF OTA-ALU RIVER BASIN OF SOUTH-EASTERN, NIGERIA
Ezenwaji, E. E.1, Onwuka, S. U.2, Eduputa, B. M.2 and Olisa, P. U1
1Department of Geography and Meteorology, NnamdiAzikiwe University, Awka – Nigeria. 2Department of Environmental Management, NnamdiAzikiwe University, Awka – Nigeria.
This paper focused on the analysis of morphometric aspects of Ota-Alu basin in south-east Nigeria and implications for regional planning of the basin. Data for the study were collected both from fieldwork undertaken between April and June 2015, and the existing topographical map (Udi S.W) of the area on a scale of 1:50,000 and published by the Federal Survey Abuja, Nigeria. All the linear, areal and relief characteristics of the area were critically analyzed. The result shows that the basin is a 5th order basin and has a high river density as well as a mean bifurcation ratio of 3.11, an indication that the whole area is liable to flooding but the bifurcation ratio between the 4th and 5th order was found to be 2.00 clearly showing the areas near the mouth of the river as seriously liable to flooding. All the areal and relief characteristics indicate that the area has a high relief and steep slopes which help in the creation of gully erosion in some parts of the basin. Proposal on the regional planning model for the basin was highlighted to include emphasis in rice cultivation while at the lower section of the basin oil palm plantation and mill be established in the middle and upper courses of the basin. Recommendations include proper mapping of every sector in the basin, as well as, periodic study of the morphometric characteristics of the watershed to upgrade knowledge and generate data for planning. Keywords: Morphometry, planning, bifurcation, flooding, erosion.
THE CORRELATION BETWEEN LAND USE ACTIVITIES AND AIR POLLUTION IN A PART OF SOUTHERN NIGERIA
Balogun, V. S.*1 and Orimoogunje, O. O. I.2
1Department of Geography and Regional Planning, University of Benin, Benin City Nigeria. (+2348027447207; address: firstname.lastname@example.org) 2Department of Geography, ObafemiAwolowo University, Ile-Ife Nigeria. (+2348035855946; email@example.com)
Understanding current land use patterns and its environmental implication is important to planners and policy makers. Therefore this study investigates the relationship between land use activities and air quality in a part of Southern Nigeria, with a view to ascertaining the major contributors to air pollution in the study area. Field study covered a period of six months, which ran between mid-October 2013 and mid-April 2014. Particulate matter (PM0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10µm) and carbon monoxide (CO) were examined at different land use areas. Particulate matter was measured using a hand-held particle counter, while CO was measured with a single gas monitor (T40 Rattler). Five sampling points were selected based on stratified sampling technique and represented five land use types monitored in the study area (i.e. institutional, agricultural, commercial, industrial and residential). Sampling was carried out twice weekly in accordance with the guidelines of the Central Pollution Control Board, Delhi India. Sampling height was two meters above ground level. The one-way analysis of variance was used to determine significant differences in the concentration of air pollutants among the five land use classes. The results revealed that industrial land use had the highest total mean values of 263770, 72380 and 11668 particle counts for PM0.3µm, PM0.5µm and PM1.0µm respectively, while commercial land use recorded the highest total mean values of 2891, 704, 345 particle counts and 4.23 ppm for PM2.5µm,PM5.0µm,PM10.0µm and CO respectively. Agricultural land use recorded minimum mean values of 183210, 48040 particle counts and 1.81 ppm for PM0.3µm,PM0.5µm and CO respectively, while institutional land use recorded minimum mean values of 8347, 2131, 497 and 230 particle counts for PM1.0µm, PM2.5 µm, PM5.0 µm andPM10.0µm respectively. The highest mean value of 263770 particle counts for PM0.3µm was obtained at the industrial land use, which was significantly (F5,52 = 2.503, p < 0.05) higher than the mean values of 259558, 218432, 184741 and 183210 particle counts for commercial, residential, institutional and agricultural land uses respectively. Also, the highest mean value of 4.23 ppm for CO was obtained at the commercial land use, which was significantly (F5,52 = 19.681, p < 0.05) higher than the mean values of 3.96, 2.75, 2.08 and 1.81 ppm for industrial, residential, institutional and agricultural land uses respectively.The study concluded that land use activities are the important contributors to air pollutants in the study area and this calls for better consideration of air quality challenges in town planning and zoning processes. Keywords: Land use, air pollution, correlation, planning.
ACCESSIBILITY TO RURAL SERVICES: A GIS-BASED ANALYSIS OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IFE REGION, NIGERIA
M.O.Olawole*, O.A. Arilesere and A.S. Aguda
Department of Geography, ObafemiAwolowo University, Ile-Ife (+234 08035784825, firstname.lastname@example.org,email@example.com; +234 08055975260, Laurex_bb@yahoo.com; +234 08037063548, firstname.lastname@example.org) *Correspondence (+234 080-357-84825; email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org)
A large body of research has found that physical access to services played important roles in promoting development and well-being in rural areas. However, little attention has been paid to the possible spatial variation in access level to secondary schools in rural areas of Nigeria. This study uses data related to location of secondary schools, settlements and Geographic Information System techniques to investigate accessibility to rural secondary schools in part of Ife region, Osun State, Nigeria. The results show that accessibility to school varies among settlements: 17.28% of settlements are within 1km of school locations while 19.76% of the settlements have poor physical access to schools. The findings have important implications for rural education planning, as access to secondary education plays significant roles in the development and quality of life of rural dwellers. The study concluded that while geospatial techniques provide planners and decision-makers with valuable information on the location of and access level to existing rural schools, there is a strong need for policy action to established more secondary schools in settlements with poor access also to embark on roads and transport services improvement programmes in the rural areas to enhance access level to and utilization of secondary schools in the region. Keywords: Accessibility, secondary schools, GIS, Ife region, Nigeria
SPATIAL VARIATION IN HAND DUG WELL WATER CONTAMINATION BY EFFLUENTS FROM WUKARI ABATTOIR, WUKARI, TARABA STATE, NIGERIA
Oyatayo, K, T1.,Songu, G.A.1., Amos, A.G1., Ndabula, C2. andJidauna, G.G2.
1Department of Geography, Kwararafa University, Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria. 2Department of Geography and Regional Planning, Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria. email@example.com
Hand dug well water remain the major source of domestic (drinking) water in the city of Wukari. Therefore, this study examined the spatial variation in hand dug well water contamination by effluents from Wukari abattoir, Wukari, Taraba State. There are about 76 hand dug wells in the study area and for the purpose of this study, four (4) samples A, B, C and D of hand dug well water were systematically collected using sterilized bottles. Sample A was within Wukari the abattoir, sample B was 100 meters away, sample C 200 meters and sample D 300 meters away. The physical, chemical and microbial analyses of the hand dug well water samples were conducted. The results of the analyses were compared with the NSDWQ*MPL and FEPA standards. The results showed that hand dug well water samples A and B have higher concentrations than the maximum permissible limits of NSDWQ*MPL and FEPA (2001) standards of most of the tested parameters. Concentration decreased with distance from abattoir except, for parameters such as conductivity, temperature, total hardness, nitrite, calcium, magnesium, and nitrate whose values were inconsistent. Values for pH however increased with distance from the abattoir. The one way ANOVA (F-ratio) statistics at P-0.05 for physical and chemical parameters were insignificant, while that of microbial showed significant spatial variation with distance away from the abattoir. The parameters were at different compliance level with NSDWQ*MPL and FEPA standards. The study concluded that the water in samples A and B were not fit for drinking unless adequately treated and those of C and D may require slight treatment. It was recommended that efforts should be made to relocate the abattoir to an area away from residential areas. Aggressive public awareness and enlightenment on possible impacts of pollution from abattoir wastes should be embarked upon by relevant agencies. Keywords: Spatial Variation, Hand dug well water, Water quality, Abattoir Effluents
MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING OF PIPELINE TRANSPORTATION SAFETY AND SECURITY: IMPLICATIONS FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Director, Centre for Logistics and Transport Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt +234 8033381826; firstname.lastname@example.org
A pipeline in the context used hereis a tube of steel or plastic used to transport gases, liquids or solids (in suspension or in the form of slurries). Water, petroleum, natural gas, and products derived from them are the main substances moved by pipelines. Nevertheless, increasing attention is being paid to the possibilities of transporting other kinds of commodities by pipeline, especially since roads and trains are becoming increasing congested. The advantages of the pipeline transportation mode include that pipes are best suited for transporting fluid materials and gases over long distances; pipeline transport provides door-to-doorservice [origin to destination] for only fluid and gaseous materials and some solids suspended in fluids; it is free from climatic hindrances; it is one of the cheapest on tonne/kilometre basis; it is cheap and easy to maintain because automatic inspection vehicles can travel inside the pipes, spotting and reporting faults to surface engineers. One of such vehicles/devices is the intelligent pig with numerous magnetic sensors and a computer to spot and record problems in the pipe with great accuracy. The device moves through the pipe as the product flows through the pipe. In the process details of the inspection are radioed to the central monitoring station for immediate action at solving the problem; it is environmentally friendly except for occasional spills. Modern inspection techniques have been developed, e.g. helicopter surveys, hand held electrical sensors and internal inspection using the intelligent pig have however been developed to take care of occasional spills and it is safest mode of transporting liquid and gas products.
SPATIO-TEMPORAL CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF DIABETES MELLITUS INCIDENCE IN OYO STATE, NIGERIA (2000-2014)
Department of Geography, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria (+234 803502 5386; email@example.com)
The paper examined the spatio-temporal clustering of diabetes mellitus (DM) incidence in Oyo state from 2000 to 2014 with a view to identifying DM hotspots in the state. With Global Moran’s I and local GetisOrd techniques, male and female DM rates were analysed. A strong and consistent clustering of DM was found in Ibadan region of Oyo state. Potential explanations for the noticeable DM hotspots in Ibadan are the city’s poor urban design, rapidly growing fast food industry and urban sprawl. It was suggested that further research should be conducted to validate or contradict these claims. In conclusion, the paper recommended that policy stakeholders should design area-specific prevention and intervention approaches against DM in the state. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, spatial autocorrelation, fast food, urbanisation, Oyo state
A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH TO VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF RURAL COMMUNITIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
I.B. Abaje*1, B.A., Sawa2, E.O. Iguisi2 and A.A. Ibrahim2
1Department of Geography and Regional Planning, Federal University Dutsin-Ma, P.M.B. 5001, Nigeria 2Department of Geography, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria *Correspondence (+234 8036642086, +234 8027942167; firstname.lastname@example.org)
This study is aimed at assessing the degree of vulnerability of rural people to climate change in Kaduna State with particular reference to some selected communities in six Local Government Areas (LGAs) of the state. Data and information for this research work were obtained from a direct field study based on the result of 426 questionnaires that were administered to household heads in the selected communities. Simple descriptive statistics was used to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents. In order to assess the degree of vulnerability, normalization of indicators using functional relationship was done so that they all lie between 0 and 1. Findings revealed that Ikara LGA was highly vulnerable; Sanga, Kauru and Soba LGAs were moderately vulnerable; while Kagarko and Kajuru LGAs were less vulnerable. Findings also revealed that households that do not own livestock, farmlands in addition to their low literacy level were highly vulnerable, as were large household that have no access to fertilizer to boost crop production. Furthermore, households that were far from the nearest market and farm inputs were also found to be vulnerable, as were households located far away from health care services, veterinary services, and microfinance houses. The study recommends that, in areas found to be moderately and highly vulnerable, measures should be taken for effective management of environmental resources; and to stimulate both agricultural intensiﬁcation and diversiﬁcation of livelihoods away from risky agriculture. Also, the establishment and improvement of early warning systems to monitor the occurrence of extreme climate events are suggested. Finally, these areas should be targeted for rural infrastructure investments by policymakers. Keywords: climate change, environmental resources, households, indicators, vulnerability index
ACCESSIBILITY AS A FACTOR AFFECTING RENTAL VALUES OF RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY IN BENIN CITY
Monday Ohi Asikhia1, Nicholas W. Eghagha2, G.C. Emenike3
1,2Department of Geography and Regional Planning, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria 3Department of Geography & Environmental Management, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Port-Harcourt email@example.com; 08109890165
Physical accessibility is a major factor affecting land, property and rental values in an urban center. The relevance of this is seen in the fact that accessibility is almost totally hinged on the nature and state of roads. This paper examined the road network pattern in three neighbourhoods of Benin City with the aim of empirically determining that the accessibility of the roads had a profound effect on the rental values of residential property located on them. Primary and secondary data were used in the analysis. In all 300 questionnaires were administered in three neighbourhoods where respondents were randomly selected along major streets, but 287 returned valid for analysis. The graph of the road network of each neighbourhood was derived from their street maps, and the graph theory was used to determine the level of accessibility on the individual roads. This was related to the rental values of residential properties located on them as portrayed in value maps, while correlation analysis was use to prove the relationship between the variables. The result showed that accessibility had a significant influence on variation in rental values of residential property in Benin City. The study recommends that road networks in the city should be improved upon to enhance the value of residential properties to benefit not only government, but also the owners and occupiers of these properties. Since accessibility facilitates greater circulation and ease of movement, the construction, rehabilitation and maintenance of these roads can ultimately enhance the quality of life in the study area. Keywords: accessibility, residential property, rental value, road network, neighbourhood
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOIL PROPERTIES ALONG A TOPOSEQUENCE IN DANGE-SHUNI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, SOKOTO STATE, NIGERIA
Department of Geography, Federal Government College, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. firstname.lastname@example.org
This paper highlights comparative nature of soil properties over a geological material of a toposequence in Dange-Shuni area of Sokoto State, Nigeria. Profile pits were dug along the crest, middle-slope and bottom of the toposequence and soil samples collected from identified horizons for physico-chemical analysis. The morphological characteristics of the profiles were also described in the field using standard field procedure. The result obtained showed that in general, almost all the soil pedons were deep with matrix colour ranging from dark-brown to reddish in the surface and sub-surface horizons. Soil structure varied basically from crumb to angular/sub-angular, fine, platy and single grained structures. The particle size distribution is that of a down slope decrease in the coarseness of the soils as sand content decreased from the crest to valley bottom ( i.e 88.2%, 86.3% and 70.6% respectively) for surface soils. Both the clay and silt contents to the surface horizon increased down-slope, though highest values for silt were recorded at the valley floor and that of the clay. Soil bulk density also showed relatively low values over the ‘A’ profile and ‘B’ profile while the ‘C’ profile showed relatively higher soil bulk density. The total nitrogen, exchangeable cations and cations exchange capacity were generally lower over the ‘A’ and ‘B’ profile compared to the ‘C’ profile pit. The soil pit was generally deep over all soil groups, with respect to the slope factor. The general trend of the total nitrogen, exchangeable cations and cations exchange capacity was that of increasing down-slope and decreasing values with increasing slope gradient. It is the considered opinion of this paper that the observed compactive pattern of soil properties with respect to lithology and slope positions has implication for land use management that should be taken into consideration to avoid soil degredation and optimize agricultural procedure and practices.
INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE AND SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: EXPERIENCES FROM SOUTH-EAST NIGERIA
Nna O. Uluocha
Department of Geography, University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria +231-8023172089; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Environmental problems in Nigeria are now becoming more daring than ever before. Various policies and institutions have often been put in place to tackle such problems like erosion, pollution, desertification, flooding, landslide, deforestation, and so on. However, one notable missing link in the current efforts geared towards ameliorating the environmental problems besetting the nation is the failure of policy makers and implementers to integrate established local knowledge and practices of environmental resources/risk management. With practical examples, copiously drawn from typical rural communities in Igboland (South-East Nigeria), this paper highlights the role of traditional values and local knowledge systems in the proper understanding, assessment and management of environmental resources/risk. The paper also briefly highlights some of the potential benefits of using local knowledge in handling environmental issues and concerns. A call is thus made for the integration of local knowledge in the formulation and implementation of environmental protection policies. Finally, the paper advocates the creation of a national Local Knowledge System (LKS) for the monitoring, evaluation, allocation and management of environmental resources. Keywords: Indigenous knowledge, environmental resources, sustainable management, South-East, Nigeria.
Abstract Vol 10 No 1 - Sept 2014
SOIL FERTILITY STATUS UNDER RAIN-FED AGRICULTURE IN GWAGWALADA AREA COUNCIL, ABUJA, NIGERIA
Y. H. Madaki and A. Jibrin*
Department of Geography, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria *Correspondence (+234-803-697-8420; email@example.com)
An assessment was conducted on the soil fertility status under rain-fed agriculture in Gwagwalada Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. Based on field survey, seven farming communities were selected; including Dadabiri, Ledi, Gurfata, PaikonKore, Giyabiri, Giri-Wuna and TunganMallam Hassan. Five soil samples were taken at 0-15cm depth from each village (4 from farm plots, and 1 from control plots adjacent to farmlands), making 35 samples which were analyzed for texture, bulk density, moisture content, pH, Cation Exchange Capacity, exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg K and Na), exchange acidity (Al+, H+), organic Carbon, available Phosphorous, and total Nitrogen. Analysis of Variance and student t-test were employed for the analysis of data. Quite a number of parameters measured showed significant differences at p <0.01< 0.05 <0.1 significant levels. The results revealed that the soils of this area are of medium to coarse texture (sandy loam) and their bulk densities range between 1.28 and 1.56; pH in CaCI2 range between 5.63 and 6.25 while that of distilled wáter range from 6.08 to 7.13. The soils indicates no neutral salt exchangeable (no monometric Al) ions. The soils are calcareous non-sodic soils and there is presence of alkaline-earth carbonate with high level of Ca and Mg, medium level of K but low level of Na. High base saturation of more than 50% was also recorded. The soils of the study area have low ESP varying from 2.1 percent to 3.1 percent while SAR ranges between 0.05 and 0.081. Therefore, the soils of the area have high level of fertility and favourable for high crop production. This study recommends sustainable management of soil fertility in the study area. Keywords: Soil fertility, physico-chemical, properties, nutrient, deterioration
EVALUATING PEAK RUNOFF HYDROGRAPHS FOR OYUN RIVER CATCHMENT IN KWARA STATE USING GIS AND REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES
Olanrewaju, R.M., Adedayo, I.T., and Iroye, K.A.
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Ilorin, Nigeria firstname.lastname@example.org
The power of Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing techniques was used in this work, to determine the required hydrological characteristics of Oyun basin in Kwara State. Both primary and secondary data were used; the primary data are the field coordinates of prominent features in the study area while the secondary data were the administrative maps, satellite imagery, SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographical Mission) raster data and rainfall data for the study area. The GIS techniques of data analysis used comprised of overlay operation, digital terrain modeling (DTM), spatial query operations and map calculation operations. The rainfall data was fitted using Gumbel distribution to obtain basin discharges for four selected return periods. Snyder’s method was used to obtain the unit hydrograph ordinates these ordinates were used in conjunction with the discharges to generate rainfall excesses for the respective return periods while the rainfall excesses were convoluted to obtain the predicted peak runoff (storm) hydrographs for each of the selected return periods. The outcome of this research showed that Oyun river watershed had the following hydrological characteristics; Catchment area is 827 square kilometers, main river length is about 83.57 km, length from Centroid to outlet is 43.24km, average basin slope is 0.01464 %, the peak discharges of the basin for 5years, 25years, 50years and 100years are 129m3/s/cm, 184.4 m3/s/cm, 207.3 m3/s/cm and 230 m3/s/cm, while the corresponding predicted storm hydrographs were 457.12 M3/S ,793.32 M3/S ,941.70 M3/S and 1088.70 M3/S respectively. Keywords:Catchment, GIS, Remote Sensing, Hydrograph, Peak Runoff
THE ROLE OF URBAN AGRICULTURE IN REDUCTION OF POVERTY IN URBAN AREAS OF NORTH WEST REGION, NIGERIA
Ibrahim Jaro Musa and SalisuGwadabe
Department of Geography, A.B.U. ZARIA email@example.com Department of Geography, SaadatuRimi College of Education, Kumbotso Campus, Kano State firstname.lastname@example.org
Urban agriculture has recently become very popular in Northern Nigerian cities and has taken different forms and intensity, depending on the available land, capital and purposes for which it is practiced. Almost every undeveloped plot of land in north-western region is farmed during the cropping season and on other plots, the non cropping farming activities such as pastoralism, poultry and fisheries are carried out throughout the year. This is poverty reduction strategy or an anti hunger approach. Questionnaires were designed to collect information on socio-economic characteristics, farming practices, crop yields, sizes of area under cultivation, reasons for participation and the economics enjoyed. The study revealed urban farming as being intensified in the last two decades, (1980s – 2000) and that it is on the increase, because more people are becoming involved and more land is being put to use. It showed that in north-western region, 33% of civil servants on regular salary are involved, while 42% are privately employed and 25% not employed are involved, and that it is male dominated activity. The major types of crops produced are cereals, legumes, vegetables and fruits, fish and animals (beef and eggs). The areas where this practice is common are urban Zaria, urban Kano (Nomansland, Haurenwanki, along BUK road, Kaduna Metropolitan area (along Kaduna river), many places in Funtua and Gusau. The major factors responsible for this activity include desire for food security at household level and save physical money to meet up household demand. The major recommendation is, to improve land use regulation and zoning and provide education for effective urban space utilization. Keywords: Urban farming, Poverty reduction, vacant urban plots, food security, Northwest region.
INFLUENCE OF GEOLOGY AND ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES IN THE SEASONAL VARIATION OF THE WATER QUALITY OF ORLE RIVER, SW NIGERIA
C. I. Ikhile
Department of Geography and Regional Planning, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria (email@example.com; 08037611689)
The influence of geology and anthropogenic activities in the seasonal variation of the quality of Orle River and its tributaries in S.W. Nigeria was investigated fortnightly for eight months from November 1987 to June 1988. A total number of 336 observations were taken in six study sites within the drainage basin. The rivers drain both basement complex and sedimentary rocks. This geological background and the anthropogenic nature of the environment are sufficient indication of pollution stress on the rivers. The study reveals that the chemical indices of pollution such as Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) vary significantly between the seasons. Likewise, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) show increase in the wet season and decrease in the dry season. On the other hand, total hardness show increase in the dry season and decrease in the wet season. The rivers are considered to be more polluted in the wet season than in the dry season. Surface water quality has many effects on human use of water resources, water being a basic natural resource required by all human beings and the modern technological society. Keyword: water quality, river basin, wet and dry seasons; pollution.
HOUSING QUALITY IN YENAGOA, BAYELSA STATE, NIGERIA
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Faculty of Social Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State +234 8036709530; firstname.lastname@example.org
The problem of housing in Yenagoa has been increasing rapidly since it was made the capital of Bayelsa State. The change in status led to a high influx of migrants to Yenagoa. This situation resulted to a short fall in housing supply. Consequently, the quest by individuals and developers to build more houses to meet the short falls in supply, have led to indiscriminate building of houses without due consideration for the basic fundamentals of housing. This study assessed the quality of housing in Yenagoa, based on the inhabitants’ perception of sixteen selected housing quality parameters. Data for the study were collected with the aid of 350 questionnaires, which were administered to households in seven randomly selected neighbourhoods, using the stratified and systematic sampling techniques. The data were analyzed using tables, percentages and a housing quality index (HQI) model. The calculated HQI of Yenagoa was 2.74 points, on a 4 point scale. This value revealed that the quality of housing in Yenagoa was inadequate. The quality of the housing stock in Yenagoa may have adverse effects on the health of the inhabitants because of the close relationship between human health and the quality of the living environment, which has been found to be inadequate in Yenagoa. Keywords:Housing Quality, Perception, Index, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State
A MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS WATER DEMAND IN ENUGU URBAN AREA, NIGERIA
1Ezenwaji, E. E., 2Phil-Eze, P. O. and 3Enete, I. C.
1,3Department of Geography and Meteorology, NnamdiAzikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria, 2Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
This study appraised the factors that determine water demand in the Public Institutions Sector of Enugu urban area, Nigeria. To achieve the aim of study, a survey was conducted between April and June 2014 in 32 establishments of the Sector using the questionnaire designed for the purpose. The statistical analytical technique employed was the Principal Component Regression (PCR) which was derived from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) out of which we were able to isolate four out of twenty factors originally employed for the study. The four isolated factors are X3 (Number of functional toilets in the establishment), X2 (Number of times taps run), X14 (Number of person below the age of 12 years in the establishment and X16 (Number of work shifts in the establishment). The PCR model which was employed revealed that these four factors operating together achieved 97.2% of the variation in water demand in the sector leaving 2.8% unexplained. Based on the findings, recommendations were made on how the consumers and the State Water Corporation should utilize this model to better explain Water Demand in the Sector. Keywords:Appraised, establishment, isolate, public, survey.
GENDER AND GEOGRAPHY: A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF GENDER BALANCE OF ACADEMICS IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITY GEOGRAPHY DEPARTMENTS
Dept. of Geography & Environmental Management, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria email@example.com
Geography is a comprehensive field of study, yet its inclusion of women either as subjects of research or as producers of knowledge is unsubstantial. Studies by feminist geographers in various countries point to this fact; and leads to an investigation of the lag between gender and geography in Nigerian universities. From the data analysis, this study established the levels of gender disparities existing among geography academics in Nigerian universities. There are an insignificant number of geography academics that are females; most are at the lower rungs of the rank ladder and they are grossly under-represented in university management. Even with over sixty years of geography in Nigerian universities, ‘feminist geography’ is yet to become an established sub-field. The findings should be the basis for the evolutions of more appropriate ‘gender aware’ human resources planning procedures and essentially their implementation in the universities in order to ensure gender balance. Feminist geography should also be adopted by geography departments in Nigerian universities. This is because equity is known to be achieved when geography curriculum takes on a strong interest in gender issues. Keywords: Gender, Academics, Feminist, Geography, Nigeria, University
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND TRAVEL DEMAND RELATIONSHIP: THE NIGERIAN PERSPECTIVE IN RELATION TO ECONOMIC GROWTH
Oyesiku, Kayode1 and Onakoya, Adegbemi2
Centre for Transport Studies, Department of Geography and Regional Planning, OlabisiOnabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State Nigeria. firstname.lastname@example.org 2Dept. of Economics, College of Social and Management Sciences, Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Understanding the relationships between telecommunications and transportation is a concept fundamental to the development of the country against the set goals and objectives of the nation’s economic development strategies. With the recent shift in policy towards a market-based system of resources allocation, increasing attention has been paid to the development of an efficient telecommunications in the Nigeria and since late 1990s the government initiated a path breaking process of privatizing its infrastructural services especially the telecommunication sector. The growth rate of the telecommunication industry has been much faster than that of either oil or banking industries, suggesting that the telecommunication industry dominates economic activity, leading to economic growth, making the country the largest telecommunication market in Africa given the spate and degree of mobile telecommunication penetration. However, relationship between telecommunications applications on transportation generally and on travel demand and some micro-economic variables in the country in particular remained largely un-investigated at the national level. The study seeks to determine whether there is a particular type of relationship that leads to greater investment in telecommunication and subsequent reduction in travel demand using structural equation model. This study supports the complementarity hypothesis and has wider implications for travel demand in the light of the recent withdrawal of fuel subsidy by the government. Keywords: travel, demand, telecommunication, infrastructure, model
ANALYSIS OF LANDUSE USE CHANGE IN ABUJA FEDERAL CAPITAL CITY USING GEOSPATIAL TECHNIQUES
Department of Geography &Env. Management, University of Abuja, PMB 117 Abuja, Nigeria email@example.com
The study carried out a Time series analysis in the Federal Capital Territory and its environs over a 20 year period, to map LanduseLandcover change. Satellite imageries of 1987, 1999 and 2007 were acquired from the National Centre of Remote Sensing, Jos. GPS coordinates were taken during the reconnaissance survey and used to submap the images and eventually for groundtruthing. A classification scheme was developed and land categories established. Arcview 3.2a and Idrissi 32 software were used to carry out a Maximum Likelihood Classification and a Markov Chain analysis and result was cross tabulated for change estimation and calculations to estimate measurements. A student t-test was also used to test the significant change in LanduseLandcover between the period under investigation in Abuja and its environs. The result showed that built up area increased from 8% to 22%, rock-outcrop was observed to have decreased from 74% to 37%, the vegetation cover equally increased from 17% to 40% while water body area remained almost constant. The student t-test proved there is a significant change in LanduseLandcover as the calculated t 845167.364 was greater than the table value which is 12.71 at the significance level of 5%, showing that there is a significant difference in Landuse/Landcover change. Increasing population and economic activities were noted to be part of the reason for this drastic change of Landuse/Landcover types to other classes. Therefore, to support this population increase, a sustained monitoring of urban growth is required. Further detailed mapping with this information can be used in developing management plans that will prioritize administrative efforts. Urban Land use Landcover changes are very dynamic in nature and have to be monitored at regular intervals for sustainable environmental development. Keywords: Change detection;Time series; Landuse/Landcover; Geospatial,Markovian
RESERVOIR SEDIMENTATION OF A REGIONAL WATER DEVELOPMENT SCHEME IN A TROPICAL RURAL SETTLEMENT OF KWARA STATE, NIGERIA
K. A. Iroye1 and H. I. Jimoh2
1Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Ilorin, Nigeria. firstname.lastname@example.org 2Department of Geography and Planning, Kogi State University, Anyigba
This paper investigates the level of silts and sediments deposited in Oyun dam; a regional water supply project designed to serve seven communities in Kwara State of Nigeria. The dam was commissioned in 1967 with initial height of 7 meters was later raised to 9.8 meters in 1988 so as to meet the increasing water need of the region. Data used was generated from simple land survey technique which entails the imposition of 45 grids of 40m x 40m on the lake. In each grid, depth of the lake was measured and this data helped in estimating the current capacity of the lake. The result of sediments obtained showed that Oyun reservoir currently has a mean depth of 4.33 meters which indicates a loss of about 5.47 meters depth to sedimentation in filling. This figure represents about 55.8 percent loss in storage capacity of the lake. Likely reasons for high sediment level in the reservoir were examined while recommendations that can be used in abating the high sedimentation rate of the reservoir were also suggested. Keywords: Dam, Reservoir, Sedimentation, Siltation and Landuse
MICROBACTERIA IN MICRO MORPHOLOGIC UNITS ON BIMA SANDSTONE, DUKUL- SEKULE LIMESTONE ROCKS IN SITU IN THE UPPER BENUE TROUGH OF ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA
MubiAishatu Mohammed and Joseph Ngyabiya
Department of Geography, ModibboAdama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria email@example.com
The study examined the microbacteria inhibiting micro-morphologic units on the Bima sandstone and Dukul-Sekule limestone rocks in situ in the Upper Benue Trough. Specifically, we distinguished the diverse colony classes on the rock surface, strata sheets, east and west facing slopes and within curves morphologic units as well as graphical representation of association of bacteria with the rock types. A hundred samples, 60 from Bima sandstone and 40 from limestone were collected and analysed using staining method. Our results revealed six different classes of bacteria – the gram positive (+ve) short bacilli (GSB+), gram positive long bacilli (GLB+), gram negative (-ve) short bacilli (GSB-), gram negative long bacilli (GLB), gram positive cocci (GC+) and gram negative cocci (GC-) on the two rock types. The curve units’ on sandstone rock host (60%) of the sampled gram +ve short bacilliand and gram +vecocci only. Boulder surfaces revealed 73% presence of gram –ve short bacilli and gram +vecocci. On the east and west facing slope sides (effect of aspect), 53% and (60%) of the samples contains gram+vecocci and gram –ve short bacilli and Gram +vecocci respectively. We noted also, results of samples collected from the Dukul and Sekule limestone shows gram +ve short bacilli are the main inhabitant of the strata sheets. Evidence on the existence of bacteria at settle depthof a rock shows there is decrease in bacteria with increase in depth. Bacteria such as gram positive cocci and gram negative long bacilli are not even found from 2cm downward while gram negative cocci and gram positive long bacilli constitutes over 60% concentration of the bacteria from 0.6 – 2cm. Generally, percentage of bacteria in depth of rocks revealed 32% are within 0 – 0.5cm, 36% from 0.6 – 1cm, 25% from 1.1 – 2cm, and 7% from ≥ 2cm. Climate conditions such as temperature, moistures and to some extent the mineral concentration (from the colour) within the rock are found to exert control on the bacteria type and distribution pattern. Finally, we suggest application of advance technologies to further understanding of both active physiologies and controls on microbial communities on the rocks of the study area. Keywords: Gram+ve, gram-ve, limestone, microbacteria, morphologic unit, sandstone
EFFECTS OF URBAN HEAT ISLAND (UHI) ON URBAN HYDROLOGY AND ITS ASSOCIATED HEALTH PROBLEMS IN ENUGU METROPOLIS
1Enete, I. C. 2Ezenwaji, E. E. and 3Phil-Eze, P. O.
1,2Department of Geography and Meteorology, NnamdiAzikiwe University, Awka 3Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, Nsukka firstname.lastname@example.org
Urban environment is usually warmer than its surrounding rural areas. This is caused by a phenomenon called urban heat island (UHI). The impact of this phenomenon on the hydrology of Enugu Urban area was investigated. It was found that UHI generates large amount of rainfall within urban area that results in high level of discharge, sediment yield and perhaps pollution of urban rivers. Data were collected on these parameters within the urban area and surrounding rural areas in order to compare the impact of UHI on two different environments. The statistical techniques employed were the correlation and regression analysis as well as the analysis of variance (ANOVA) which produced the result that enabled us to reject the hypothesis that there is no relationship between the impact of rainfall as a result of UHI on urban rivers and those of the surrounding rural areas at 95% confidence level. Result shows that UHI impact as expected is high within the urban areas than the surrounding settlements. The health implications of this impact were discussed along with policy implications necessary for tackling the problem. Keywords: Discharge, Environment, Health, Hydrology, Urban Heat Island.
Abstracts Vol 9 No 2 - June 2014/
DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA: A CHALLENGE FOR GEOGRAPHERS
Mala M. Daura
Department of Geography, University of Maiduguri, PMB 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. Presidential Address at the 55th Annual Conference of the Association of Nigerian Geographers, hosted by the University of Maiduguri, held at Abuja, 6th-10th April, 2014.
The environment, which is the natural world in which we live can be referred to as all of the external abiotic and biotic factors, conditions and influences that affect the life, development and survival of an organism or a community (Park, 2007). The environment and disasters are closely linked. According to UN/ISDR (2002), several environmental factors, such as land degradation and desertification, ecosystem loss, environmentally related diseases, pollution, climate variability and change act as both hazards and vulnerability factors. Environmental degradation can cause or worsen disaster risks alone or in combination with other natural hazards. Disasters have become an issue of growing concern throughout the world, whether it is natural or human induced. The frequency as well as magnitude of such disasters affecting a large population globally has been on the increase in recent years. The net effects of these changes, particularly in recent decades, has been an increase in exposure to many hazards and increased potentials for catastrophic losses.
EXPLORING THE KEY PREDICTORS OF CARBON STOCK DENSITY IN SAVANNA WOODLAND AREA, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA
Department of Geography, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria (+234-803-697-8420; email@example.com)
Biometric forest inventory techniques were employed in collecting data on plant community biophysical parameters and carbon stock from 30 plots (250 m2 with 8.92 m radius). The measured parameters (density, tree species diversity, species richness, diameter at breast height (dbh), basal area, height, crown cover, shrub cover, and grass cover) were subjected to stepwise multiple regression analysis to predict carbon stock. The prediction models contained five of the nine variables and were reached in seven steps with four variables removed. The models’ coefficients of determination (R2) range from 0.84 to 0.93. The standard error of the estimates for the respective models ranged from 7.5 to 10.9 %. The final model was statistically significant, with F (3,41) = 173.9, P <0.05, and accounted for approximately 93% of the variance in carbon stock. The result suggests that tree density, dbh and basal area were best predictors of carbon stock in the study area. Based on t- test values, the coefficients and fit statistics indicate that the p-values for the intercept and the slope were significantly different from 0 (p < 0.001). This study provides a scientific contribution for the reliable estimations of carbon stock in savanna woodland ecological zones of Nigeria; which will enhance the country’s opportunities for benefiting from carbon offset trading under the auspices of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Keywords: Biomass, Carbon stock, Model, climate change, mitigation, biometric, inventory, woodland.
SPATIAL PATTERN OF TRANSPORT CONSTRAINTS IN RURAL KANO REGION, NIGERIA
A. M. Dambazau
Department of Geography, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Kano, Nigeria. *Correspondence (firstname.lastname@example.org)
The paper examined how transport constraints vary with location or access within the rural areas of the Kano Region and its implications on rural development. A structured interview schedule was used which covers a total of 413 households selected from 28 survey villages from both Kano and Jigawa States. These villages were classified into three on the basis of their accessibility characteristics as Good, Moderate and Remote. The Data were subjected to multiple regression analysis and the residuals were further subjected to test for randomness to see how the constraints vary from one rural area to another in the region. The residuals of this study were used to produce a map depicting areas of negative and positive deviations. From the map, a total of fifteen survey villages recorded negative residuals while the remaining thirteen recorded positive residuals. The greater majority of the areas which recorded negative residuals such as Maskadu, Muku, Yarimawa, Kwando, Zangon Kura, Shere, Gabari are areas of remote access and therefore remoteness may be the reasons for such result. The remaining areas are those of moderate access while only two areas of good access YalwanBulama and Kunnawa recorded a negative value. The study recommended among others empowering rural people to acquire intermediate means of transport, introduction of community based transport service and improvement in transport infrastructure especially roads in order to ease mobility problems of the rural dwellers. Keywords: Access, Community transport, Constrains, Multiple regression, Residuals.
IDENTIFICATION OF SPATIAL ZONES OF INFLUENCE FOR COMMERCIAL MOTORCYCLES IN OKENE
Dept. of Geography, Osun State University, Okuku Campus, email@example.com
The principal objective of this paper was to identify the service areas for different motorcycle parks in Okene. In modeling the flow, fare structure and distance from different motorcycle parks were used to generate flow equations. The model specification is based on geography distance decay models which specify a decrease in patronage with increase in distance. The method used in the analysis was the least square regression approach. Flow data from motorcycle parks to various destinations were obtained through an on-spot counting of trips for one hour period and extended for a week. Multiple regression analysis was used to obtain flow equation. Also statistical items such as R2, F-ratio and t-values were calculated. As a check, multi-collinearitywas tested for. The simple correlation test was adopted in checking for collinear variables. Also, a t-test was used to examine the significance of the correlation index obtained. From the results obtained; fare and distance are best used one at a time because of high collinearity observed. The results however show that when used alone, fares and distance are quite significant determinant of motorcycle movement. Keywords:
CLIMATE CHANGE AND URBAN HOUSING QUALITY IN CALABAR METROPOLIS
Department of Geography, University of Lagos, Lagos, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Mobile Phones: 080 2838 6404, 080 5180 5289
Environmental consideration in housing quality, which involves providing the occupants with suitable protection against undesirable conditions related to climate change are issues discussed. This study is undertaken because renovation projects, most of which are executed by house owners have had a considerable effect on the housing conditions of the low income localities in Calabar. The study further indicates that there are coping strategies adopted by individuals and communities, and highlights the benefits of urban renewal policies to the residents in Calabar. The paper concludes that for a metropolis which is experiencing changes in temperature range and other climatic elements, the form of dwellings should provide protection from solar radiation and shelter from hot dusty winds. Building forms that are compact and low rise, using small courtyards to provide light and air, can satisfy these requirements with inward-looking dwelling forms. The building form can be continuous, with one building sheltering the next. This pattern of dwelling is typical of traditional areas in the hot wet tropics of Calabar metropolis. Keywords: climate change, housing quality, urban environment, coping strategy
EFFECT OF DEFORESTATION ON BIODIVERSITY LOSS IN OKOBO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA
Offiong, R. A.; Ajake, A.O.; Ochiche, C.A. and Ekpe, I.A.
Department of Geography & Environmental Science, University of Calabar, Nigeria.email@example.com +234-80-34506530
This study aims at assessing the effects of deforestation on biodiversity loss in Okobo Local Government Area of AkwaIbom State, Nigeria. To achieve this, five objectives were stated and hypothesis formulated accordingly. Relevant literatures were reviewed and data was collected through the use of questionnaire, oral interview, focus group discussion and direct field observation. Findings from the study revealed that forest was a major source of food, fuel wood, herbal medicine, bush meat and a medium for fresh water protection in the area. It was also revealed that deforestation leads to loss of plants, animals, insects and bird’s species as well as environmental degradation. The result of the correlation analysis, coefficient (r) value of 0.98, shows a strong positive relationship between deforestation and effects on biodiversity in the area. Also the coefficient of determination (r2) value of 96.4% obtained indicated that deforestation was responsible for 96.4% decline of biodiversity in the study area. Keywords: Effect, Deforestation, Biodiversity loss, Okobo L.G.A
CHANGE DETECTION ANALYSIS OF NIMBIA FOREST AND ITS ENVIRONS USING GEOSPATIAL TECHNIQUES
M. A. Ade and B. Benjamin
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Abuja, Abuja, *Correspondence (Mercy_ade@yahoo.com)
Land cover change is a major issue of global environmental change and the instability and absence of government has encouraged the logging enterprise and other activities to devastate forest across the globe. Nimbia forest reserve was established in 1947 as an experimental plantation site to increase land productivity and arrest the deterioration and desertification of the semi-arid zone of the northern guinea savanna of Nigeria; however a rapid land cover change has taken place in the forest reserve over the past two decades due to human influence. This study analysed changes in land use/land cover of Nimbia forest and its environs over the years - 2003, 2007 and 2011. Six land use classes (forest area, degraded forest, shrubs land, farm land, bare surfaces, and settlement areas) were mapped out. Markov chain, maximum likelihood classification, rate of change analysis and calculations were carried out using LANDSAT 30m of 2003, NIGSAT1 32m of 2007 and NIGSATX 22m of 2011 satellite imageries. The results indicated that there was a notable loss in forest area between 2003 and 2011, of about -3%, degraded area of 6%, shrub land of 9%, farmlands of -6%, bare surface of -8% and settlement of about 2%. Many factors also led to the influx of people into this reserved area, factors such as micro climate within the forest, soil nutrient, lumbering, and businesses attracted people to settle around and in this area. There is a negative change in the study area within the period under study. The projected change showed that if the anthropogenic activities are not controlled and policies maintained, the forest will be extinct in the next decade. Keywords: Change detection; Land use/Landcover; Classification; Trend; Forest cover; Degradation
GENDER AND AGE ANALYSIS OF CASUAL LABOURERS IN THE INFORMAL LABOUR MARKET OF OWERRI METROPOLIS, NIGERIA
Dept of Geography & Environ. Mangt., Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria. firstname.lastname@example.org
Among government’s key concerns is urban employment. The purpose of this article is to investigate the gender and age of casual labourers in the urban informal labour market, because human space is not neutral. This article addresses the influence that gender and age have on the construction and functioning of the casual labour market. It also addresses the nature of gender in labour demand and labour supply. Data from the field survey on casual labourers, comprising of 200 male and female casual labourers as respondents were analyzed using percentages and Chi-square test. Of the 200 respondents, 80 percent were males and 20 percent were females. While all the employers were men, this is indicative of the fact that males dominate the casual labour market. The casual labour market is not necessarily constructed by gender but by political, economic, and socio-cultural factors, though gender is thought to be a vital structural characteristic. Within virtually every cohort above age 24 except for 65 years and above, male casual labourers have better participation than their female counterparts. The analysis shows that there is significant difference between age and gender among casual labour. Among the female respondents, 30 percent were matured women between the ages of 35 and 54 years. There was an absence of females within the age brackets of 16 – 24 years and 25 – 34 years. The analysis also helps us to know that Owerri just like other cities reflect the cultures that create them. Females are found in only certain sub-types of casual labour, and not in all sub-types. Male and female casual labourers as partners should spearhead finding solutions to problems of gender segregation that keeps women in few subtypes of casual labour. Keywords: Gender, Informal labour market, Casual labourers, Age, Subtypes.
APPLICATION OFGEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)IN THE 2006 NIGERIAN NATIONAL CENSUS
Department ofPlanning &Research National PopulationCommission Abuja, Nigeria.email@example.com
The paper examines the history of Census taking in Nigeria from the colonial days to date and the problems inherent in the activity especially in its methodology. It further examines the role of mapsin Census taking and notes the usefulness of maps from enumeration area demarcation to dissemination of census results. It then examine the processes in the 2006 National Census and the associated challenges especially the inability of the Census Organization to geo-reference the enumeration area maps generated for the exercise.The paper notes the strength and capability of Geographic Information System in effective Census Mapping and highlights the challenges of Geographic Information Systems in facilitating census mapping.It therefore argues that the use of Geographic Information System for pre-censual and post-censual activities in censuses and surveys is farmore superior than the conventional analogue system interms of cost,time and efficiency,and recommends its use for future censuses in Nigeria. Keywords: Geographic Information System, Census, Mapping, Enumeration Area Demarcation
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HAND DUG WELL WATER IN ILORIN METROPOLIS, NIGERIA
L.T. Ajibade*, A.B. Ogunkolu* and I.O. Ogundare**
*Department of Geography, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. **Department of Geography, School of Arts and Social Sciences, Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria. +234-80-65251963
Water is the most precious resource, which provides the existence of all living beings on the Earth. Living organisms are connected by thousands of threads with water. Water quality issues and observance of necessary sanitary norms is considered one of the basic priorities, which can provide sustainable economic and ecological development. This study examined the quality of hand dug well water in Ilorin metropolis with a view to determine their suitability for human consumption. The pH, Total dissolved solids, Total suspended solids, Chloride, Total hardness, Nitrate, Conductivity and bacteriological composition such as Total bacteria count and Total coliform count of 18 hand dug well water samples were determined using pre-calibrated pH meter, Digital conductivity bridge, Titration, and Agar count respectively. The laboratory results were subjected to statistical analyses using SPSS 15.0 for Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Student t-test statistics. The study revealed that well water contamination in the area is largely due to fecal (biological contaminants) in the analyzed samples and do not conform with the WHO maximum limits standards for drinking water despite the high reliance of the inhabitants on well water for drinking. The study thus, recommends among others, that waste disposal facilities should be sited in the outskirts of the metropolis and run-off should be kept away from dug wells to prevent water pollution.
INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE IN GEOGRAPHY: A CASE STUDY OF OKOLOBA, BAYELSA STATE
Dept of Geography &Env’tal Management, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State. [08058028241 or 08130786882] firstname.lastname@example.org
Almost every locality has some kind of indigenous knowledge or another. Such knowledge is always related to the environment. Thus, coastal and riverine settlements have such indigenous knowledge that is very peculiar to fluvial and marine environments. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to examine some indigenous knowledge from a riverine community – Okoloba in Bayelsa State. For instance, when winds are seen to blow from the south westerly direction to the south easterly direction; rain is sure to fall in no distant time. We will also examine whether or not such knowledge is acceptable in Western scientific knowledge. The methodology includes: oral interviews, observations, Participatory Rural Appraisal [PRA], etc. The study shows that many of the indigenous knowledge are acceptable in Western Scientific endeavours. It is therefore recommended that indigenous knowledge in Geography and other scientific disciplines be harnessed and incorporated into Western Education. Keywords: Knowledge, Environment, Geography, Okoloba Rain.
A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF SOIL CHARACTERISTICS AND GROUND WATER LEVELS IN KEBBI STATE, NIGERIA
Sa’adu Umar Wali and Sheikh D. Abubakar Department of Geography, Faculty of Social sciences, UsmanuDanfodiyo University, Sokoto, email@example.com;firstname.lastname@example.org
Kebbi state falls within the Sokoto Basin, which is part of an extensive elongated sedimentary basin underlying most of the North – west Nigeria and Eastern part of Niger Republic. This basin is characterized by many geological formations which include, Dukamaje, Kalambaina, Taloka, Illo, Gundumi, Dange, Wurno, and Gwandu formations. This area is also situated in semi-arid zone characterized by a shot rainy season as well as a long dry season, which have consequences on the region´s surface water bodies as well as groundwater resources. The aim of this assessment is to highlight variability in soil characteristics and consequently its ground water levels. The study employed onsite soil classification. Seven sample points were purposively selected and studied. A total of one hundred and forty (140) soil samples were collected at different levels and analyzed in the laboratory, from which soil particle density as well as soil porosity percentages were obtained. The points that exhibit high porosity percentages are those with less soil density. However, twenty one variables were further generated from the result of laboratory analysis and regressed against water levels using backward selection. The result of the regression analysis shows that silt (x11, x18) is the most important variable affecting ground water level in the study area. Thus, it was concluded that groundwater underlying the study area is a product of both the area’s surface and sub surface soil characteristics. Keywords: Porosity; sub-surface strata; water bearing strata,Soil Characteristics and Ground Water Levels
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